Jaguar IPACE Shines In Netherlands With Over 600 Sales

first_img Dutch Plug-In Electric Car Market Surges 147% In October 2018 Fastned Achieves Network Wide Operational Break Even Source: Electric Vehicle News Jaguar I-PACE breaks into the top 15 in NovemberAfter 209 registrations in October, Jaguar notes 607 I-PACE registrations in November, which makes it one of the most popular models of all types in the Netherlands.The I-PACE stands now for 91% of the British’s brand sales in the Netherlands, which is amazing, however, we need to remember that those are sales to those who waited in a long queue. Dealers would like to receive some 3,500 I-PACE by the end of this year, but they received just 875 so far (44% of total Jaguar volume). We don’t know if this is even technically possible as deliveries began late.News from the Netherlands For comparison, Nissan sold a lot LEAFs – 657 new registrations (3,107 YTD), which is almost 47% of the total volume for the brand (21% YTD).The one that delivered the most electric cars seems to be Tesla – 736 registrations (428 Model S and 308 Model X). Tesla delivered some 6,367 cars this year in the Netherlands and it should further accelerate in December – firstly because the typical end of the quarter rush and secondly because from 2019 on BEVs will get less tax incentives than now.#Jaguar #ipace top 15 model in The Netherlands in Nov recording 607 registrations.That’s more than rival #tesla x or s models although Tesla expected to peak in Dec due to tax change helping fuel IPace boost too. I-Pace accounted for 91% of Nov Jag totalRai/own research pic.twitter.com/1Lqx3GIDM4— Matthias Schmidt (@auto_schmidt) December 3, 2018center_img Source: RAI Vereniging Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on December 5, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle News Tesla Taxi Driver Granted Unlimited Supercharger Use After Court Steps Inlast_img read more

Aston Martin Launches Classic Electric Conversions

first_img16 photos A new official Heritage EV program from Aston Martin Works will convert your classic into an all-electric equivalent, a process that’s reversible thereafter Electric conversions for classic cars are becoming more and more common, with the surgery relatively easy to complete. Going electric often brings a performance benefit, not to mention cheaper motoring, less maintenance, and no congestion charges to fear. Aston Martin Works has announced an official electric conversion program making the British marque, one of the first to do such work in-house.More on Aston Martin…70 years of Aston Martin DB perfection – they’re all here!Aston Martin DP215 sells for $21.5-million in Monterey!Browse classic Aston Martins in our classifiedsAston Martin will use the same battery electric technology that will soon appear in their first all-electric model, the Rapide E. The power unit is self-contained meaning that the original combustion engine can easily be refitted at a later date should the owner so choose. Management of the new EV system is via a screen ‘discreetly’ placed in the cabin of the classic.The very first car to received this treatment is a 1970 Aston Martin DB6 MKII Volante, which was built by hand nearly 50 years ago at Aston’s old Newport Pagnell factory. Battery modifications sit on the original gearbox and engine mountings, meaning that modifications are kept to an absolute minimum. Aston Martin’s release states that ‘given the historical significance of these collectors cars it’s vital any EV conversion is sympathetic to the integrity of the original car.’‘We are very aware of the environmental and social pressures that threaten to restrict the use of classic cars in the years to come,’ said Andy Palmer, Aston Martin Lagonda’s president and group CEO.‘Our Second Century Plan not only encompasses our new and future models, but also protects our treasured heritage. I believe this not only makes Aston Martin unique, but a truly forward-thinking leader in this field.”The DB6 Volante serves as a proof of concept for Aston, with the Works department readying itself for customer Heritage EV conversions in 2019. This is a pretty big step for the world of classic car electric conversions, with customers now able to go to Aston Martin itself to ensure their car’s history is preserved post-conversion.We think this is a great move from Aston Martin and wonder how long it will be before other manufacturers launch similar programs. Your move, Porsche. Source: Electric Vehicle News Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on December 6, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

EGEB Wisconsin to Climate Alliance New England wind LA nixes gas plans

first_imgSource: Charge Forward Electrek Green Energy Brief: A daily technical, financial, and political review/analysis of important green energy news.Today in EGEB, Wisconsin joins the U.S. Climate Alliance. An offshore wind council is formed in New England. And Los Angeles scraps a plan to rebuild three natural gas plants. more…The post EGEB: Wisconsin to Climate Alliance, New England wind, LA nixes gas plans appeared first on Electrek.last_img

Colorado getting 24 new electric buses through Volkswagen settlement replacing diesel buses

first_imgSource: Charge Forward Colorado is using some of its allocated money from Volkswagen’s Dieselgate emissions settlement to remove 28 diesel-powered buses from state roads and replace them with 24 new electric buses. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe the podcast.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LVEtRE51hUThe post Colorado getting 24 new electric buses through Volkswagen settlement, replacing diesel buses appeared first on Electrek.last_img

Lightning Strike electric motorcycle makes public debut as production appears on track

first_imgLightning’s newest electric sportbike recently attended its first public showing since its launch in March. Just days afterwards, the company shared an inside glimpse of the newest e-moto’s production line. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N8COKnXNH-EThe post Lightning Strike electric motorcycle makes public debut as production appears on track appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img

Porsche Taycan interior revealed in leaked images

first_imgAs Porsche is getting closer to bringing the Taycan, its first all-electric vehicle, into production, we are gradually starting to get our first look at the production version and today, leaked images show the interior of the new electric car. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KqMH4mh99DcThe post Porsche Taycan interior revealed in leaked images appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img

DOJ Prosecution Of Sigelman Ends With No Jail Time

first_imgAs highlighted in this previous post, the DOJ’s prosecution of Joseph Sigelman came to an abrupt halt early in the trial after the DOJ’s star witness admitted to giving false testimony on the stand.As further evidence of the DOJ’s failures, earlier today federal court judge Joseph Irenas (D.N.J.) refused to sentence Sigelman to any jail time after Sigelman agreed to a plea agreement involving substantially reduced charges.Sigelman’s defense team (Sigelman was represented by Quinn Emanuel Urquhardt & Sullivan LLP, William Burck led the defense team with his partners, William Price and Juan Morillo) issued a release which states in full as follows.“Today Judge Joseph Irenas, Federal District Court Judge for the District of New Jersey, gave Joseph Sigelman probation and no jail time.  This followed on the heels of DOJ’s sudden decision to drop five and a half of six charges against Mr. Sigelman including the most serious charges.  The Government’s decision appears driven in large part by an admission last Thursday by the Government’s star witness, Gregory Weisman, that he made false statements to the jury during his testimony.  It also follows the admission by the only other witness presented thus far, an FBI Agent assigned to the investigation, that the Colombian citizen at the center of the prosecution’s case was allowed to leave the United States to his native Colombia without facing arrest or any charges from the Government.  Indeed, he was permitted to go to Disney World while Mr. Sigelman faced indictment.Mr. Sigelman’s plea speaks for itself. He recognizes that he failed as a manager to provide stringent oversight of some of his colleagues and employees at PetroTiger. He takes full responsibility for his perosnal failures, including to ensure that all employees at PetroTiger always acted with the highest integrity. Mr. Sigelman has expressed deep regret for not instituting more quickly and forcefully a compliance regime.  Such a regime would have prevented any payments that were not appropriate in the then-two-year old PetroTiger, a company he co-founded that grew organically and through rapid acquisitions of existing companies.In sentencing Mr. Sigelman, Judge Irenas chastised the Government for asserting that a one-year prison term was the only correct sentence.  He rejected the Government’s position as contrary to the plea agreement negotiated between the Government and Mr. Sigelman’s lawyers — and most importantly contrary to the interests of justice.  Judge Irenas further noted that Mr. Sigelman has employed thousands of people and will continue to do a great deal of good in society, and that Mr. Sigelman is less likely to commit an offense in the future than any other defendant he has seen in his more than two decades on the bench.  Mr. Sigelman is now free to continue his career as an entrepreneur.Mr. Burck said: “Joe has been through hell.  He accepts full responsibility for his role in all of this.  But the government made the right call in agreeing to a very generous plea deal.  It gives certainty to Joe and his family, and saves the Government from a potentially embarrassing loss at trial.  We thank Judge Irenas for the extraordinary thought and care he brought to every aspect of this case, and ultimately his mercy in sentencing Joe to no jail time, which is the most just result.”Mr. Price added:  “We are delighted with the result of this deal and believe that all parties can now move on with their respective endeavors.  Mr. Sigelman’s case highlights the unique challenges that building a start-up company in a foreign land can pose even above the normal chaos of a fast-growing company.  We are deeply grateful to Judge Irenas and the devoted members of the jury who dedicated their time, energy and attention to this case.”last_img read more

Other DOJ Defeats When Asserting Aggressive Enforcement Theories Against Foreign Nationals

first_imgIn the minds of some, the many recent DOJ defeats when put to its burden of proof in individual Foreign Corrupt Practices Act enforcement actions are of little consequence.Some have written off the DOJ’s struggle in the recent Sigelman action because it was the result of a key witness admitting he gave false testimony during the trial.Others have written off the DOJ’s ultimate defeat in the enforcement action against Lindsey Manufacturing and two of its executives because it was, most directly, the result of numerous instances of prosecutorial misconduct.To some, the DOJ’s defeat in the O’Shea enforcement action  was no big deal because it was, most directly, the result of a key witness knowing “almost nothing” in the words of the judge even though the judge admonished the DOJ that it “shouldn’t indict people on stuff you can’t prove.”The DOJ’s defeat in the Africa Sting cases, well, where do you even begin with that one.However, you add up these defeats of little consequence in the minds of some, and the end result is a big consequence:  the DOJ often loses when put to its burden of proof.The most recent example occurred in a pre-trial ruling in the DOJ’s FCPA prosecution of Lawrence Hoskins. The DOJ’s defeat was not because the quality of its evidence, not because of the DOJ’s conduct in the investigation, but rather a flawed legal theory.The same people who are likely to view the above DOJ defeats as having little consequence are also likely to view the DOJ’s pre-trial defeat in Hoskins as an anomaly.Except that it is not.As summarized in this post, in three prior instances federal court judges have rebuked DOJ enforcement theories in FCPA enforcement actions involving foreign national defendants.As highlighted in this prior post, in U.S. v. Castle, both the N.D. of Texas and the 5th Circuit ruled against the DOJ as a matter of law regarding the issue of whether “foreign officials” (in the case Canadian nationals) who are excluded from prosecution under the FCPA itself, could nevertheless be prosecuted under the general conspiracy statute (18 USC 371) for conspiring to violate the FCPA.  The courts held that “foreign officials”  could not be prosecuted for conspiring to violate the FCPA.  The rationale was that Congress, in passing the FCPA, only chose to punish one party to the bribe agreement and the DOJ could not therefore  ”override the Congressional intent not to prosecute foreign officials for their participation in the prohibited acts” through use of the conspiracy statute.  The court decisions were based in part on Gebardi v. United States, 287 U.S. 112, 53 S.Ct. 35, 77 L.Ed. 206 (1932), a case that also featured prominently in the recent Hoskins pre-trial ruling.In U.S. v. Bodmer, 342 F.Supp.2d 176 (S.D.N.Y. 2004), Judge Shira Scheindlin addressed the question “whether prior to the 1998 amendments, foreign nationals who acted as agents of domestic concerns, and who were not residents of the United States, could be criminally prosecuted under the FCPA.”  Judge Scheindlin concluded that the FCPA’s language, as it existed prior to the 1998 amendments, was ambiguous and she thus resorted to legislative history.  Judge Scheindlin further commented in dismissing the FCPA charges against Bodmer (as Swiss national) as follows.  “After consideration of the statutory language, legislative history, and judicial interpretations of the FCPA, the jurisdictional scope of the statute’s criminal penalties is still unclear.” Thus, the rule of lenity required dismissal according to Judge Scheindlin.As highlighted in this prior post, in the Africa Sting enforcement action Judge Leon dismissed a substantive FCPA charge against Pankesh Patel (a U.K. national) based on the DOJ’s enforcement theory that Patel was subject to the FCPA’s jurisdiction because he allegedly sent a DHL packing in furtherance of the bribery scheme from the U.K. to the U.S.  Although Judge Leon did not issue a formal written decision, the trial court transcript is clear that he disagreed with the DOJ’s legal theory.Granted the DOJ’s enforcement action against Hoskins remains active, but at present the DOJ is believed to be 0-4 when asserting aggressive FCPA enforcement theories against foreign nationals.To some, this is of little consequence.The rule of law would disagree.It is interesting to note that the DOJ of course asserts aggressive FCPA enforcement theories against foreign companies as well.However, no foreign company has challenged the DOJ in these enforcement actions – it is simply easier, more certain and more efficient to roll over, play dead, and agree to resolve the enforcement action.Yet, if certain foreign companies would have challenged the DOJ, the likely result in several enforcement actions may have been DOJ defeats.last_img read more

On Asking the Question

first_imgby, Jeanette Leardi, ChangingAging ContributorTweet19Share101Share9Email129 Shares“How old are you?”I was asked this question recently at the end of a presentation I gave called “It’s All in Your Mind! How to Keep Your Brain Fit and Strong” to elder residents of an independent living community. The query caught me by surprise. You see, I’m rarely asked about my age these days.As children and teens, most of us are asked this question a lot –– and are proud to answer it. That’s because asking a younger person’s age is usually a conversation-starter, right after “What’s your name?” And the exchange is a joyful one. Adults want to form a quick connection by allowing youngers to give exacting responses that show how “grown-up” they are: “I’m six and three-quarters.” “I’m almost 10.” “I’ll be 18 in March.” But as the years pass, we become aware of the serious implications behind the inquiry.Like questions about any other topic, the ones we ask about aging and the ways in which we choose to answer them reveal what we believe and care about.When is it ever acceptable to ask a person’s age? In other words, when is the question relevant?As I see it, the only condition under which knowing a person’s age is important is an external one, based on the need to administer a program or a law. Chronological age determines our legal ability to drive a car, vote, sign a contract, marry, enter military service, and qualify for Medicare and Social Security. It also determines who is considered a juvenile victim or perpetrator under our penal code. Administrators need cutoff points for each of these situations, otherwise there would be no other way to set practical limits by determining who is eligible and who isn’t.But that’s it. Legal programs and services aside, there’s no reason why a person’s chronological age should limit his or her ability to do anything. Or to be considered to do anything.And yet, we constantly apply internal perceptions of chronological age as qualification standards for a range of experiences. At what age should a person retire? Stop driving? Give over his or her decision-making powers to adult children or to others?  At what age is it improper to apply for a job? To go clubbing or back to school? To wear a hoodie or miniskirt? To engage in sex? To run for President of the United States?We get into trouble when we hold onto stereotypical ideas of what a person could or should do at a certain age and thus confuse chronological age with an individual’s ability to contribute to and benefit from society. Often it is only when we ourselves reach that age and hear those limitations placed on us by others that we are caught by surprise. And then we become frustrated and maybe even angry.All of us, no matter our age, should be having these reactions about the limitations we place on older adults.There’s only one social instance in which raising the question “How old are you?” is an appropriate reaction: when we are exposed to a group that is generationally homogenous without a good reason. I’m not talking about meetings of a teen club or a hiking outing for residents of a retirement community. If, however, there are very few (or no) older adults at a public meeting discussing problems and solutions regarding a community’s schools, transportation system, public health policy, and other issues, we need to call attention to this situation and rectify it. Older brains should be picked and older voices heard. Conversely, older adults should consider opening up some of their social experiences to people of younger generations. Think about the diversity of ideas, learning experiences, and friendships that can be fostered by intergenerational book clubs, neighborhood projects, café salons, and other events.We need to be aware of a lack of age diversity in social contexts where chronological age should not be a factor. By working to bring generations together, not only do we break down physical barriers but psychological ones as well. We create a fluidity of perception based on individual experience rather than the turning of calendar pages. We make telling our age a positive –– and even irrelevant –– statement, no matter how old we are.As for that age question posed to me at the independent living community, my response –– “I’m 64. And damn proud of it!” –– caused smiles among the elders gathered to hear me talk about brain fitness. But as I spoke, I looked around the lecture hall and made a mental note to approach the activities director with a question of my own:“How about inviting younger people in the surrounding community to join us next time?”Related PostsGero-Punk DharmaI have a recurring memory of meeting for an interview with one of my spiritual teachers.  How many years ago did this meeting take place? I think several, perhaps even a decade has passed.  I was struggling with memories around personal and family wounds over-taking me during my contemplation and…What’s Your Relationship with Aging?Our relationship with aging can remain as a loving friendship throughout our lives when we understand that it’s a cumulative experience that provides us with an ever-changing variety of psychological and spiritual gifts –– if we are open to anticipating and accepting them.The Manifesto Against Ageism is HereAbout eight years ago, Ashton Applewhite began interviewing people over 80 for a project called “So when are you going to retire?” It didn’t take her long to realize that almost everything she thought she knew about aging was wrong. So she wrote a book to set the record straight.Tweet19Share101Share9Email129 SharesTags: Ageism Aging languagelast_img read more

Asynt offers new custom High Pressure Parallel Reactor

first_imgTypically constructed from durable 316 stainless steel – the High Pressure Parallel Reactor is an affordable, compact unit that can be used to screen 10 x 30 ml reactions at pressures of up to 200 bar and temperatures of 320 °C. The High Pressure Parallel Reactor can be used with a hotplate stirrer or can be customized to have more rapid heating and/or multiple temperature zones.Related StoriesAsynt releases a DrySyn OCTO Mini Conversion Kit for efficient reaction samplingAsynt’s DrySyn OCTO Mini reaction helps optimize biocatalytic hydrogenationAsynt offers new range of Lab Safety ShieldsThere are a wide variety of options available to customize this versatile parallel reactor, from facilities for internal cell measurement, sealed sample/additions valves, condenser jackets, electrical heating options, liquid charging systems, gas supply/mixing systems, air driven stirrers, purged heating chambers, and many more. Drawing upon skilled UK craftsmen – Asynt can also build these reactors from alternative materials including Hastelloy, Inconel, Titanium and alloy steels, allowing for greater heat capacity and use with particularly corrosive or caustic chemicals.Individually designed  to optimally suit a wide spectrum of needs, each Asynt High Pressure Parallel Reactor is extremely easy to set-up (one simple closure) and has a fail-safe mechanism to protect the operator.All Asynt high pressure reactors conform toa wide range of national and international safety standards, including the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC (PED), Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 (PSSR) and British Compressed Gases CP4 Rev2 (1998).Source: https://www.asynt.com/press-releases/custom-high-pressure-parallel-reactors/ Jul 12 2018Proven in numerous installations worldwide, the Asynt High Pressure Parallel Reactor can be custom configured to optimally suit applications including homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogenation, carbonylation, corrosion testing, parallel synthesis and screening.last_img read more

New closedloop brain stimulation method improves learning memory and skill acquisition

first_imgAug 10 2018HRL Laboratories, LLC, in collaboration with University of New Mexico (UNM), have published the first study showing that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the brain during sleep increases human subjects’ ability to accurately assess hidden targets in novel visual scenes. The new “closed-loop” method effectively reduces the typical overnight drop in performance for novel scenes by about 48%.”This technique is for accelerating learning, memory, and skill acquisition,” said Dr. Praveen Pilly, HRL’s principal investigator and last author on the study. “The processes we affected with noninvasive electrical stimulation are slow-wave oscillations of the brain’s electrical field that occur during non-REM sleep stages 2 and 3. We tracked ongoing oscillations and applied tACS that matched their frequency and phase in the slow-wave oscillation band. This matching is what we mean by a closed-loop system. The technique is unique to HRL, and although others have speculated on the concept, we are the first to publish results on a closed-loop slow-wave tACS system.”The theory on slow-wave oscillations relating to memory retention is that new sensory information is initially encoded in the hippocampus of the brain for short-term storage. Then, because they can be quickly forgotten, the memories are transferred during sleep from the hippocampus to the cerebral cortex where they are integrated and consolidated with previous knowledge. This enables the new knowledge to be remembered and generalized better, increasing retention of new skills for longer periods. As the first study in which closed-loop electrical stimulation was used for hippocampus-dependent memories, the HRL research takes tACS to the next level.”The main task that we used for testing is generally referred to as a target detection task,” said Dr. Nicholas Ketz, lead author on the study. “We used a set of images with very subtle cues that determined if they were part of threatening situations–close up or distant targets that are perceived as dangers–or non-threatening situations, which look almost exactly the same, but with the visual cues missing. This is how people can be trained to look for subtle cues of possible dangers.”Related StoriesMercy Medical Center adds O-arm imaging system to improve spinal surgery resultsDon’t Miss the Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery (B3DD) Summit this AugustWearing a hearing aid may mitigate dementia riskIn the experiment, subjects had tACS applied or not applied (sham group) during sleep overnight. Their performance on the task was then measured over time to detect persistence of enhanced learning.”A critical aspect of the test was that some images were exact replications of the training images and some were from a new viewpoint,” Ketz said. “For example, in a scene in which the subject had to look under a rock to find a target, that image was repeated initially, then for the more generalized image the same rock and target appeared, but from a different angle or vantage point. This tested whether subjects’ memories for that scene were comprehensive or specific. The theory of memory consolidation, which we were augmenting with tACS, suggests that consolidation enables memory for the more generalized image type. This means that experiences are incorporated in a more robust representation that enables adaptation rather than just recognizing the exact incident. Another key contribution from our work is the extraction of stimulation-induced biomarkers in sleep EEG across the scalp in the slow-wave oscillation band that correlate with overnight performance changes for novel scenes.”The study had a within-subjects counterbalanced design in which subjects came in a few days after their initial stimulation and testing, and changed between active and sham conditions. The design greatly reduced noise in performance estimates, but it is relatively rare to have a study with one adaptation night and two experimental nights of sleep because of the amount of time subjects must volunteer. Aaron Jones, Dr. Natalie Bryant, and Dr. Vincent Clark of UNM were the other authors on the paper. They helped design the behavioral paradigm, analyze the behavioral data, and also collected all the data.Entitled Closed-loop slow-wave tACS improves sleep dependent long-term memory generalization by modulating endogenous oscillations, the paper was published in the July issue of Journal of Neuroscience. This research was supported by the Biological Technologies Office (BTO) of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) under the RAM Replay program. Dr. Justin Sanchez, current BTO Director, was the program manager. Source:http://www.hrl.com/news/2018/08/01/skills-and-learning-improved-by-closed-loop-electrical-brain-stimulation-during-sleeplast_img read more

UCSF awarded 20 million grant to study impacts of new emerging tobacco

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Sep 18 2018UC San Francisco has been awarded a five-year, $20 million grant from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health to study the impacts of new and emerging tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTPs), which heat tobacco without combustion.UCSF is one of nine institutions nationally to receive funding this year from the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS). The UCSF research team, led by Stanton A. Glantz, PhD, professor of medicine and director of theRelated StoriesStudies show no evidence of fall in cigarette consumption due to WHO’s FCTCRisk of children taking up smoking has reduced following tobacco display banSmoking ban in prisons reduces levels of second-hand smokeThe new UCSF TCORS research projects, which will also be supported by $1 million in funding from UCSF, will range from the products’ impacts on lung and cardiovascular disease, to school-age usage and the impact on health care costs in general and vulnerable populations.”The tobacco industry is drastically different than it was 10 years ago, when most tobacco users smoked cigarettes that were more alike than different,” said Glantz. “Today we have an explosion of new and varied products, including e-cigarettes like JUUL and HTPs, which the industry promotes as presenting ‘reduced harm’ with very little independent evidence. We will independently study the health effects of these products, how they are perceived by consumers, and their effects on health care costs, with the goal of protecting public health.”The UCSF TCORS projects have three primary goals: to evaluate the short-term health effects of the new tobacco products and how specific product characteristics influence health effects and behavior; scientifically inform product standards and marketing regulations for the new products; and build the tobacco regulatory science research community.”As they have in the past, tobacco companies are using new products that they claim are ‘safer’ to try to position themselves as part of the solution rather than part of the problem,” said Glantz. “The UCSF TCORS is developing the knowledge that will allow independent judgment of whether these companies have actually changed or are merely changing their spots.” Source:https://www.ucsf.edu/last_img read more

US politicians say they want to help the working poor But how

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img The 2016 U.S. presidential campaign has come to a simmer, and candidates from both major parties are already talking up ways to help the working poor. Exactly how many people are in this socioeconomic group, however, has long been a subject of scholarly debate. Now, a trio of sociologists has taken a fresh look at the question and come up with more than 100 answers—the best of which are lower than official estimates.“Measurement assumptions have important implications for the estimates of the size as well as the distribution of the problem across different racial and ethnic groups,” says Brian Thiede, a sociologist at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, and lead author of the study, published online before print in Work and Occupations. Differing assumptions—such as about who is poor and who is a worker, for example—have produced a wide range of answers, varying by up to 16%, write Thiede, Daniel Lichter of Cornell University, and Scott Sanders of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah.In a bid to do better, the researchers first set out to identify the assumptions used in previous studies that might swell or shrink the number of people considered to be working poor. One issue is who should be counted as a worker. For example, they found that studies typically didn’t count people who are past retirement age but still working to supplement their income. They also examined how researchers defined who was poor. Some studies considered only the earnings of a working head of household, for instance, whereas others tallied the total earnings of all members of a household—which could shrink any estimate.The definition of poverty has long been debated, the researchers note. The official U.S. definition of poverty, for example, is based on an absolute dollar figure. (In 2015, it is $11,770 for a household of one in the 48 contiguous states, and a bit more if you live elsewhere or count other family members.) But some studies define poverty differently, using methods recommended by the National Academy of Sciences’ Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance. Although these methods add in-kind income and support provided by government health care programs, they also subtract certain tax payments and work expenses. The net effect tends to increase estimates of the working poor.Other studies use a relative benchmark for poverty: for example, placing the poverty line at about one-half of the median household income of a nation or region. As the median rises or falls, so does the poverty line.This concept of relative poverty is not new, notes David Brady, a sociologist with the WZB Berlin Social Science Center.  In 1776, Adam Smith, the pioneering 18th century Scottish economist, wrote in his The Wealth of Nations that “a linen shirt … is, strictly speaking, not a necessary of life. … But in the present times, through the greater part of Europe, a creditable day-labourer would be ashamed to appear in public without a linen shirt.” Brady says that “most international social science, and arguably the best social scientists of poverty even in the United States, are converging on [using] a relative measure of poverty.”These two approaches produced very different results, Thiede notes, when the researchers applied them to the census data. When using the absolute poverty threshold, the researchers concluded that about 4.3% of working-age persons worked year-round yet lived in poverty in 2012. In contrast, using a relative poverty threshold of about one-half the median U.S. income, the poverty estimate for year-round workers increased to 11.7%. (The poverty rate among the total population, which includes nonworkers, is much higher.)Once the researchers had identified the various assumptions, they began to experiment. They used different combinations of assumptions about work and poverty to calculate estimates of the working poor. Overall, they came up with 126 estimates, ranging from 2.5% to 18.5% in 2012.Some measures that produce these estimates are better than others, however, the authors argue. Using statistical analyses and other methods, they ranked the combinations of factors, looking for those most likely to reflect the real world. The highest ranked combination for individuals, they found, defined a worker as someone who worked more than 17 hours a week; adjusted income to a full-time, full-year equivalent; and set the poverty threshold at 125% of the official threshold. Using those assumptions, the researchers estimated that 12.4% of American workers were poor.In contrast, the lowest ranked combination of assumptions produced an estimate of 9.2%. It defined a worker as someone who worked more than 35 hours a week for more than 50 weeks per year, did not adjust income, and based the poverty threshold on 50% of median family income.In a separate step, the researchers also calculated that between 9.3% and 11% of working family heads are poor. That translates to between 6.4 million and 8 million workers and—when their household members are included—between 20 million and 24 million persons living in poor families with a working head.These numbers are smaller than the 10.6 million working poor estimated by the federal government in 2014. The gap is partly the result of a broader federal definition of who is a worker. Still, the study “seems very solid and robust scholarship to me,” Brady says.The results highlight the fact that work alone is not enough to avoid poverty, Thiede says. “It’s a fairly significant problem and [the findings are] contrary to the ideological assumption that work is a universal, automatic path out of poverty,” he says.That’s a topic that’s likely crop up again in coming months, as presidential candidates hit the 2016 campaign trail.last_img read more

How the battle lines over CRISPR were drawn

first_img Ding, ding, ding! CRISPR patent fight enters next round CRISPR battle update Email George Church, Harvard University [The patent fight] reminds me of reading about really unhappy rich people. They have such a big blank check that they just make each other miserable. Round one of CRISPR patent legal battle goes to the Broad Institute Novak, Foy, and Charpentier began speaking with others at the CRISPR research front about starting a company. “We were, as far as I know, the first ones to really think of that and really try to put something together,” says Charpentier, who is now at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. They set out to bring all the leading lights of CRISPR on board. It was a tiny research community then—in 2012 only 126 papers were published on CRISPR, compared with 2155 last year—and this simple vision seemed healthy for the field: practical and intellectually turbocharged. “We thought in the beginning it would be very important to bring everyone together,” Charpentier says.After discussing the idea with Doudna, they floated the concept by two key CRISPR researchers in Cambridge, Massachusetts: George Church at Harvard University and his former postdoc Feng Zhang of the Broad Institute, who had just published their own widely noticed Science papers showing that the CRISPR system could guide its bacterial enzyme, Cas9, to precisely target and cut DNA in human cells. “One of the goals was to simplify the process of intellectual property,” Charpentier says. Dividing the pie Two institutions and researcher Emmanuelle Charpentier claim CRISPR intellectual property. They have given birth to companies that have licensed the technology for multiple—and in many cases overlapping—applications in human therapeutics, agriculture, and industry. Scientists hold major stakes in several companies (see table below). *As of 9 February 2017 The developing patent battle has led to further rifts. Doudna, Charpentier, and collaborators—who collectively are represented by UC—first filed a patent application in May 2012, whereas the Broad group did not file a patent claim until that December. But Broad, which soon filed 11 more patents to support its central claim that Zhang’s team had invented the first CRISPR system to edit human cells, paid USPTO to fast-track the review of its applications. To the surprise of many in the field, USPTO began issuing CRISPR patents to Broad in April 2014 before deciding on the UC Regents’ earlier patent application.Church says he had serious misgivings about Broad’s patent position and the legal wrangling, which Editas bankrolled. “I almost quit,” Church says. Broad’s first patent application was rejected, he says, and Broad’s response to USPTO—in particular, a declaration from Zhang—”was quite unfriendly and it questioned Jennifer’s veracity and authenticity.” The declaration noted that Doudna acknowledged Church’s help in her January 2013 publication about making CRISPR work in human cells. “I just thought she was being nice, and holding that against her like she got vital information from me is odd.” (Broad, Editas, and the other parties in the patent dispute refused to discuss the details.)Doudna left Editas a few weeks after the patent was granted. She says she had family commitments at home in Berkeley and was tired of traveling to Cambridge but adds, “You’re welcome to draw your own conclusions.” A year later, she became a “cofounder” of Intellia—based in Cambridge. And at UC’s behest, USPTO declared a patent “interference” on 11 January 2016, which triggered an expensive, contentious fight that the companies are financing.The track record of earlier gene-editing approaches suggests that the CRISPR companies pursuing medical therapies have a long road ahead. In 2009, for example, Sangamo Therapeutics in Richmond, California, began using zinc finger nucleases to modify genes in immune cells from HIV-infected people, hoping to make the cells resistant to the virus. Yet the company still doesn’t have an approved therapy. Similarly, cancer immunotherapies designed with TALENs by Cellectis, headquartered in Paris, have been tested in people since 2015, but they’ve only been given to two patients so far.There’s no reason to think CRISPR would succeed any faster in applications like those, says Dana Carroll at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, who did pioneering work to develop the zinc finger technology. “If you have just one target you’re going to hit over and over again and it’s part of a big project, it doesn’t matter which platform you use,” Carroll says. “CRISPR’s a great advantage only when you’re feeling your way, like you do in a research project.”Nor is it clear that CRISPR will offer an easier path to genetically modified crops and livestock than other genetic engineering techniques do. That will depend on whether government regulators exempt CRISPR-modified organisms, which are made without transfering DNA from one species to another, from the scrutiny that genetically modified organisms now get.USPTO’s appeal board is expected to announce its decision in the next few weeks. Sherkow and Contreras predict each party will likely wind up with some patent rights and will ultimately cross license. But the decision is sure to shake up the industry, Doudna says. “It does raise this dilemma of what happens in the future with all of these various partnerships that have been put in place,” she says. “They will have to be re-evaluated.”In spite of the uncertainties, Barrangou, who notes that for a decade he was one of only a handful of researchers working on CRISPR, says people still underestimate how large CRISPR Inc. will become. “We’re not even getting started,” he says. “People say, ‘I can’t wait for the bubble to burst.’ Talk to them 6 months later and they say, ‘I can’t believe this.’ Talk to them 5 years later and they’ll still say they can’t believe it.” Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe That November, Novak, who by then had become a vice president at Sanofi in Paris, and another old friend, Shaun Foy, a venture capitalist in Vancouver, Canada, discussed CRISPR’s commercial potential during a surfing trip to the challenging, frigid waters off the northern tip of Vancouver Island. Neither had ever surfed, but they both liked adventures. So Foy’s assessment, which came a month later after he had done what he calls his “diligencing,” wasn’t surprising. “He said I had to leave my job,” Novak says. In early 2012, Emmanuelle Charpentier, a little-known French microbiologist who would soon meet worldwide fame, contacted her old friend Rodger Novak to tell him about her recent studies at Umeå University in Sweden of the mechanisms behind a novel bacterial immune system. “She said, ‘Hey, what do you think about CRISPR?’” recalls Novak, a biotech executive who more than a decade earlier had worked with Charpentier in academic labs studying antibiotic resistance. “I had no clue what she was talking about.”It was only later that Novak learned that Charpentier, in collaboration with a prominent structural biologist, Jennifer Doudna of the University of California (UC), Berkeley, had transformed the CRISPR immune system into a tool that could edit genomes with great ease. As they and colleagues noted in what has become a landmark Science paper, published online 28 June 2012, this tool had “considerable potential.” Nonhuman therapeutics: Caribou Biosciences ERS Genomics Broad Institute The U.S. Patent Trial and Appeal Board ruled today in favor of the Broad Institute in the high stakes battle over who will control the valuable intellectual property linked to CRISPR, the powerful genome-editing tool. The ruling came after the feature below, from the 16 February issue of Science, was prepared. The decision may be appealed by the University of California, however, and many other CRISPR-related patent applications have been filed by the companies and scientists trying to commercialize its discovery, so the business battle will no doubt continue.center_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Dividing the pie Two institutions and researcher Emmanuelle Charpentier claim CRISPR intellectual property. They have given birth to companies that have licensed the technology for multiple—and in many cases overlapping—applications in human therapeutics, agriculture, and industry. Scientists hold major stakes in several companies (see table below). Hover over a researcher, a licensee or an application to see its connections. It’s been an incredible fight over credit. Everyone is trying to jockey themselves and minimize what others did. The nascent partnership between Doudna and Charpentier’s group also became strained, but both of them declined to discuss the details. “It’s delicate,” Charpentier says. Says Doudna: “She made various decisions about really going her own way with respect to her commercial involvement that I completely respect.”At this point, investors weren’t tripping over themselves. “When we said ‘CRISPR,’ people were a bit confused,” Charpentier recalls. “There’s a lot of food associated with ‘crisper.’ You have crispy salad in Sweden. In the U.S., there are Krispy Kreme doughnuts.”Church says the field only drew serious investment, spawning new companies and new rivalries, after a team led by Harvard’s Chad Cowan and Kiran Musunuru showed in the 4 April 2013 issue of Cell Stem Cell that CRISPR was far superior to existing genomeediting tools. Scientists had harnessed and commercialized other enzymes for genome editing, notably ones that relied on so-called zinc fingers and others known by the acronym TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases). In the Cell Stem Cell paper, the researchers did a head-to-head comparison of CRISPR and TALENs. CRISPR, they found, was far more efficient at creating the targeted mutations. “Up until that point, CRISPR was just another scissors,” says Church, but now the new technique stood out.Cowan and Musunuru teamed up with Church and Harvard’s Derrick Rossi, who had recently co-founded a biotech, Moderna Therapeutics, that had broken records for investments. They started to explore forming a CRISPR company. “We talked to all the VCs in the space,” says Musunuru, now a cardiologist at the University of Pennsylvania. Along the way, they learned that Charpentier’s team and Zhang and his colleagues at Broad were also doing the VC dog-and-pony show. “It was clear that people had competing interests, even though the real issues didn’t come out to public display until later,” Musunuru says.Some scientists went their own way to make sure that they, and not the investors, would shape the companies, whereas others hoped to make more money by affiliating with this or that VC firm. “They were thinking the next Genentech—hundreds of millions of dollars,” says Cowan of some of the earlier players who decided against launching a company with him. And there were bruised relationships. “It’s been an incredible fight over credit,” Sontheimer says. “Everyone is trying to jockey themselves and minimize what others did.”By the end of 2013, Charpentier, Novak, Foy, and Cowan had joined forces in CRISPR Therapeutics. Zhang, Church, and Doudna helped co-found Editas Medicine, which was born out of Broad. Sontheimer, Marraffini (now at The Rockefeller University in New York City), Rossi, and Barrangou are all co-founders of Intellia Therapeutics. Other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies soon jumped in, paying steep licensing and collaboration fees to the CRISPR startups, as well as to Broad.These companies stress that they have distinct development “pipelines” and business strategies. But there’s a great deal of overlap: For example, CRISPR Therapeutics and Editas have both made sickle cell disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy a priority, and Intellia and Editas both have programs targeting the liver disease α-1 antitrypsin deficiency and collaborations that focus on engineering T cells to fight cancer. “At the 10,000-foot level they’re all similar,” Doudna says. Yet she is unconcerned about duplication. “There’s plenty of space in the gene-editing world for multiple entities.” Charpentier notes that some redundancy is a good thing to solve tough biomedical problems. “How many pharmaceutical industries and biotechs are working on the same thing?” she asks. CRISPR first became a business with yogurt.The dairy industry uses the bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus to convert lactose into lactic acid, which gels milk. Viruses called bacteriophages can attack S. thermophilus, spoiling the yogurt culture. In 2007, Rodolphe Barrangou and Philippe Horvath were working at Danisco, one of the world’s leading makers of yogurt cultures, when they found that the S. thermophilus genome contains odd chunks of repeated DNA sequences—so-called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), which Spain’s Francisco Mojica had first described in 1993 in the genome of the salt-loving microbe Haloferax mediterranei. The Danisco team found that the CRISPR sequences match the phage DNA, enabling S. thermophilus to recognize and fight off infections.DuPont, which acquired Danisco in 2011, began using the insights to create bacteriophage-resistant S. thermophilus for yogurt and cheese production. Today, “whether you’ve had yogurt in Tel Aviv or nachos in California, you’ve eaten a CRISPR-enhanced dairy product,” says Barrangou, who is now a food scientist at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.Yet the idea that CRISPR could serve as a general-purpose genome-editing tool did not surface until a 19 December 2008 Science paper by Erik Sontheimer and Luciano Marraffini at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. Sontheimer and his postdoc Marraffini were the first to show just how CRISPR protected bacteria: by identifying and crippling invaders’ DNA. “From a practical standpoint, the ability to direct the specific, addressable destruction of DNA … could have considerable functional utility, especially if the system can function outside of its native bacterial or archaeal context,” they wrote.USPTO, however, rejected their patent application. “The vision and idea were out there, but we hadn’t reduced it to practice,” says Sontheimer, who is now at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester. “When we filed our patent in 2008 there were a million mechanistic questions.”In 2011, Doudna co-started Caribou Biosciences as what she calls “a research tool company” to exploit the possibility that CRISPR could be used to simplify detection of viral infections like HIV. But the real flowering of CRISPR Inc. didn’t begin until the next 2 years, when this obscure bacterial immune system showed its power as the versatile tool that Sontheimer and Marraffin had only imagined. First came Doudna and Charpentier’s paper describing a CRISPRCas9 system that could cut DNA in a test tube. Six months later, in January 2013, Zhang (working with Marraffini), Church, Doudna, and a fourth group separately reported that they could export CRISPR-Cas9 to human cells, which meant that it might be put to work in medical treatments.That was when Charpentier made the rounds, talking to one CRISPR expert after another about commercializing the technology far beyond the research tools Caribou was pursuing. Among those she approached was Zhang. “It would have been really great to work with Emmanuelle,” he says.But geography intervened. Her team had a plan to be headquartered in Switzerland and was backed by a California-based VC firm, Zhang notes. He, on the other hand, “had the opportunity to build a really strong team in Boston,” he says. Boston-based investors were interested, and Eric Lander, Broad’s president, served as a consultant for one of them. Lander declined requests to comment for this article, noting through a spokesperson that he had “no business relationships with any of the CRISPR companies.” But Lander acknowledged that he “did meet with VCs to actively stimulate interest in forming companies to license the technology in ways that could maximize patient benefit.” Nessan BerminghamRodolphe BarrangouLuciano MarraffiniAndrew MayDerrick RossiErik SontheimerJennifer DoudnaRachel HaurwitzJames BergerMartin JinekShaun FoyRodger NovakChad CowanDaniel AndersonCraig MelloMatthew PorteusEmmanuelle CharpentierFeng ZhangGeorge ChurchDavid LiuJ. Keith JoungCAR-T cellsStem cellsAlpha-1 antitrypsinMuscular dystrophySickle cell anemiaBeta thalassemiaCystic fibrosisLeber congenitalamaurosisLivestockIndustrial biologyAgriculturalDrug discoveryResearch toolsAnimal modelsIntellia TherapeuticsERS GenomicsEditas MedicineCaribou BiosciencesCRISPR TherapeuticsBroad InstituteUniversity ofCalifornia,BerkeleyEmmanuelleCharpentierBroadInstitute (Interactive)J. You/Science; (Graphic)G. Grullón/Science How the battle lines over CRISPR were drawn Erik Sontheimer, University of Massachusetts Medical School Human therapeutics: Intellia CRISPR Therapeutics Editas Medicine But the attempt at unity collapsed—with a good deal of noise and dust. “I wish that it had worked out differently,” says Doudna, who also liked the concept of everyone working together. Over the next year and a half, as the science grew even more compelling and venture capital (VC) beckoned, the jockeying to start CRISPR companies became intense. The small community of researchers was rent apart by concerns about intellectual property, academic credit, Nobel Prize dreams, geography, media coverage, egos, personal profit, and loyalty. Adding to the divisive forces were the interests of the prestigious and powerful institutions that had a stake in the spoils—which in addition to UC, Broad, and Harvard included the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and the University of Vienna.In the end, three companies formed to try to exploit CRISPR to create novel medicines, while Broad and two other companies licensed the technology to partners that hoped to engineer everything from improved crops and livestock to better animal models and industrial chemicals. A billion dollars poured into what might be called CRISPR Inc. from VC firms, pharmaceutical companies, and public stock offerings. Tens of millions of that money went to lawyers as the companies and the academic license holders faced each other down in a battle royale at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). “It reminds me of reading about really unhappy rich people,” says Church of the epic patent fight. “They have such a big blank check that they just make each other miserable.”As the players anxiously await a ruling from USPTO, Science took a close look at how the enterprise fractured, drawing on documents from the patent litigation, Securities and Exchange Commission filings, licensing agreements, and interviews with the central figures. Church, who describes himself as “an inclusive guy” and made his own attempt to bring the top researchers together under one roof, believes that in the long run the splintering of the field will probably work out fine for the companies, their investors, the principal researchers, and the public. “It’s good enough,” says Church, who has equity in two CRISPR companies that focus on human therapeutics. “But it’s not all for the good.” Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) (Table data) SEC S-1 Filings By Jon CohenFeb. 15, 2017 , 3:30 PMlast_img read more

HIV drug could improve recovery after stroke

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe MARY TEENA JOY HIV drug could improve recovery after stroke By Kelly ServickFeb. 21, 2019 , 11:00 AM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Emailcenter_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Stroke treatment has been a race against time. In the hours after a stroke, the clot-busting treatment tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can limit damage to the brain. But once that damage is done, no drugs are known to promote recovery. New research suggests such a therapy could come from an unlikely target: a cellular protein called CCR5 that allows HIV to infect cells. Scientists found that in mice, disabling CCR5 helps surviving neurons make new connections, and that people who carry a CCR5 mutation may recover better from a stroke.”This is the first real molecular target to improve recovery after stroke,” says Argye Hillis, a stroke neurologist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, who was not involved in the work. A clinical trial will soon test its promise by giving stroke patients an HIV drug that blocks CCR5.White blood cells display CCR5 on their surface to intercept signals from molecules called chemokines and coordinate an immune response. But HIV exploits CCR5, grabbing onto it to invade host cells. People with a mutation that cripples the CCR5 gene are protected from infection, which is why Chinese scientist He Jiankui recently aimed to mutate CCR5 in controversial human experiments. Blocking CCR5 boosted neural projections from the brain’s motor region (left). The new discoveries about CCR5 began with a hunt for “smart mice”—animals bearing genetic mutations that apparently boost their ability to learn and remember. Neuroscientist Alcino Silva and his team at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), wanted to figure out which of 148 mouse strains had such enhancements. In 2016, they reported that reducing levels of CCR5 in a healthy mouse brain enhanced memory formation and learning.UCLA stroke neurologist Thomas Carmichael was intrigued. “When you watch patients recover in stroke, it looks like they’re relearning to walk or relearning language,” he says. Indeed, surviving neurons near the injury sprout tendrils to make new contacts across the brain. A drug that targets CCR5 seemed promising for stroke recovery, and that drug was already on hand. Maraviroc, which blocks CCR5, was approved by U.S. regulators in 2007 for use with other antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infections.In Cell this week, Silva, Carmichael, and their collaborators showed that CCR5 levels in mouse neurons skyrocket after stroke and can remain elevated for weeks—and that the protein appears to hamper recovery. The team blocked CCR5 with maraviroc or a gene that interferes with its production, and then ran the mice through tests of motor ability—for example, counting how many times their feet slipped as they walked across a metal grid. Treated mice showed greater motor improvements than controls at the end of the 9-week testing period.Even if the researchers waited until 3 weeks after a stroke to give the animals maraviroc, it improved their performance. In previous studies, nothing has seemed to help at that point, says Dale Corbett, a neuroscientist specializing in stroke recovery at the University of Ottawa. The new results, he says, suggest “it may be feasible to reopen this recovery window in people.”Blocking CCR5 seemed to help maintain connections between neurons adjacent to the injured site. And it caused neurons in motor regions to sprout more projections to the opposite side of the brain, a process that might help a mouse relearn lost movements.What CCR5 does in the poststroke brain is hazy. Surging CCR5 is part of the inflammatory response to stroke, says Robyn Klein, a neuroimmunologist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. In flammatory molecules may prompt neurons to express more of this chemokine receptor. In the developing brain, chemokines are known to influence how neurons migrate and connect. After stroke, they seem to decrease the number of connection sites on neurons near the damage. (How that process hinders regrowth and recovery isn’t clear.)Carmichael notes that blocking CCR5 also caused neurons to express genes that increase their excitability, making them fire more readily. He suspects that neurons boost CCR5 after a stroke to dampen their activity and lie low to avoid a deadly cellular frenzy known as excitotoxicity. But because the protein then sticks around, that protective mechanism gets in the way of recovery.Mouse results often prove meaningless in people, but when Carmichael’s group teamed up with researchers behind the Tel Aviv Brain Acute Stroke Cohort (TABASCO) in Israel, they found encouraging clues. Roughly 10% of Europeans have a genetic deletion that cripples CCR5, and the number is higher in Jewish people of Eastern European origin. The TABASCO team identified 68 people in its cohort of stroke survivors who had at least one copy of the CCR5 mutation. Compared with people without the mutation, they performed slightly better on tests of motor and sensory skills and cognitive abilities both 6 months and 1 year after a stroke, the new study found.”It wasn’t gangbusters better, but … the fact that they found anything is impressive,” says Steven Cramer, a stroke neurologist at UC Irvine, who has studied genes linked to stroke recovery.Carmichael and his collaborators are now designing a clinical trial that will give 30 people maraviroc starting when they leave an inpatient rehabilitation facility—typically about 4 weeks after a stroke. The team hopes to launch the trial this year.Meanwhile, some researchers expect the CCR5 story to inspire a broader search for brain repair strategies based on learning and memory genes. “We’ve always been talking about having a tPA-like moment for stroke recovery,” Corbett says. “Whether this is it or not, I don’t know, but at least it gives us hope.”last_img read more

Giant batteries and cheap solar power are shoving fossil fuels off the

first_imgPrecipitous price declines have already driven a shift toward renewables backed by battery storage. In March, an analysis of more than 7000 global storage projects by Bloomberg New Energy Finance reported that the cost of utility-scale lithium-ion batteries had fallen by 76% since 2012, and by 35% in just the past 18 months, to $187 per MWh. Another market watch firm, Navigant, predicts a further halving by 2030, to a price well below what 8minute has committed to.Large-scale battery storage generally relies on lithium-ion batteries—scaled-up versions of the devices that power laptops and most electric vehicles. But Jane Long, an engineer and energy policy expert who recently retired from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, says batteries are only part of the energy storage answer, because they typically provide power for only a few hours. “You also need to manage for long periods of cloudy weather, or winter conditions,” she says.Local commitments to switch to 100% renewables are also propelling the rush toward grid-scale batteries. By Jacobson’s count, 54 countries and eight U.S. states have required a transition to 100% renewable electricity. In 2010, California passed a mandate that the state’s utilities install electricity storage equivalent to 2% of their peak electricity demand by 2024.Although the Los Angeles project may seem cheap, the costs of a fully renewable–powered grid would add up. Last month, the energy research firm Wood Mackenzie estimated the cost to decarbonize the U.S. grid alone would be $4.5 trillion, about half of which would go to installing 900 billion watts, or 900 gigawatts (GW), of batteries and other energy storage technologies. (Today, the world’s battery storage capacity is just 5.5 GW.) But as other cities follow the example of Los Angeles, that figure is sure to fall. A large-scale solar farm in Southern California. This month, officials in Los Angeles, California, are expected to approve a deal that would make solar power cheaper than ever while also addressing its chief flaw: It works only when the sun shines. The deal calls for a huge solar farm backed up by one of the world’s largest batteries. It would provide 7% of the city’s electricity beginning in 2023 at a cost of 1.997 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) for the solar power and 1.3 cents per kWh for the battery. That’s cheaper than any power generated with fossil fuel.”Goodnight #naturalgas, goodnight #coal, goodnight #nuclear,” Mark Jacobson, an atmospheric scientist at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, tweeted after news of the deal surfaced late last month. “Because of growing economies of scale, prices for renewables and batteries keep coming down,” adds Jacobson, who has advised countries around the world on how to shift to 100% renewable electricity. As if on cue, last week a major U.S. coal company—West Virginia–based Revelation Energy LLC—filed for bankruptcy, the second in as many weeks.The new solar plus storage effort will be built in Kern County in California by 8minute Solar Energy. The project is expected to create a 400-megawatt solar array, generating roughly 876,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually, enough to power more than 65,000 homes during daylight hours. Its 800-MWh battery will store electricity for after the sun sets, reducing the need for natural gas–fired generators. Email Giant batteries and cheap solar power are shoving fossil fuels off the grid Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe By Robert F. ServiceJul. 11, 2019 , 1:40 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) 8MINUTE SOLAR ENERGY last_img read more

Podcast Where private research funders stow their cash and studying gun deaths

first_img A new Science investigation reveals several major private research funders—including the Wellcome Trust and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation—are making secretive offshore investments at odds with their organizational missions. Host Meagan Cantwell talks with writer Charles Piller about his deep dive into why some private funders choose to invest in these accounts.In the United States, gun injuries kill more children annually than pediatric cancer, but funding for firearm research pales in comparison. On this week’s show, host Sarah Crespi talks with Staff Writer Meredith Wadman and emergency physician Rebecca Cunningham about how a new grant will jump-start research on gun deaths in children.This week’s episode was edited by Podigy.Listen to previous podcasts.About the Science Podcast[Image: Bernard Spragg; Music: Jeffrey Cook]*Correction, 27 December, 5 p.m.: The interview on studying gun deaths in children in the United States incorrectly says that NIH spent $3.1 million on research into pediatric gun deaths. The correct figure is $4.4 million. Bernard Spragg last_img read more

Trump still hangs tariff threat over Mexico despite deal over border issues

first_img US House rejects Saudi weapons sales; Trump to veto Advertising By AP |Sterling | Updated: June 10, 2019 8:10:34 am In a series of tweets, Trump defended the agreement heading off the 5% tax on all Mexican goods that he had threatened to impose Monday, but he warned Mexico that, “if for some unknown reason” cooperation fails, “we can always go back to our previous, very profitable, position of Tariffs”.Still, he said he didn’t believe that would be necessary.Read | Donald Trump calls off plan to impose tariffs on Mexico “I think what the world is tired of and what I am tired of is a president who consistently goes to war, verbal war with our allies, whether it is Mexico, whether it is Canada,” he said.But acting Homeland Security Secretary Kevin McAleenan, speaking on “Fox News Sunday”, insisted “all of it is new”, including the agreement to dispatch around 6,000 National Guard troops.Also Read | Trump is confident Mexico will enforce new immigration deal“This is the first time we’ve heard anything like this kind of number of law enforcement being deployed in Mexico to address migration, not just at the southern border but also on the transportation routes to the northern border and in coordinated patrols in key areas along our southwest border,” he said, adding that “people can disagree with the tactics” but “Mexico came to the table with real proposals” that will be effective, if implemented. donald trump, trump mexico, mexico immigration policy, trump mexico tariff, world news, indian express Trump warned Mexico that, “if for some unknown reason” cooperation fails, “we can always go back to our previous, very profitable, position of Tariffs”. (Source: Reuters)US President Donald Trump on Sunday dangled the prospect of renewing his tariff threat against Mexico if the US ally doesn’t cooperate on border issues, while some of his Democratic challengers for the White House said the last-minute deal to avert trade penalties was overblown. Trump echoed the same in his tweets, insisting the deal was being misrepresented.“We have been trying to get some of these Border Actions for a long time, as have other administrations, but were not able to get them, or get them in full, until our signed agreement with Mexico,” he wrote. “Mexico was not being cooperative on the Border in things we had, or didn’t have, and now I have full confidence, especially after speaking to their President yesterday, that they will be very cooperative and want to get the job properly done.”He also teased the idea that more was agreed to than was announced Friday, saying that “some things” and “one in particular” had been left out of the release but would be “announced at the appropriate time”.He could have been referring to discussion about Mexico becoming a “safe third country”, which would make it harder for asylum-seekers who pass through the country to claim refuge in the US The idea, which Mexico has long opposed, was discussed during negotiations. But Mexican Foreign Minister Marcelo Ebrard has said Mexico did not agree to it.Mexico’s ambassador in Washington nonetheless said her country is committed to working with the US and that discussions will continue.“We want to continue to work with the US very closely on the different challenges that we have together. And one urgent one at this moment is immigration,” said Martha Barcena. She told CBS’ “Face the Nation” that the countries’ “joint declaration of principles … gives us the base for the road map that we have to follow in the incoming months on immigration and cooperation on asylum issues and development in Central America.” Hold the applause until Hafiz Saeed is convicted: US committee to Donald Trump The tweets came amid questions about just how much of the deal — announced with great fanfare Friday — was really new. It included a commitment from Mexico, for instance, to deploy its new National Guard to its southern border with Guatemala. Mexico, however, had already intended to do that before Trump’s latest threat and had made that clear to US officials. Mexican officials have described their commitment as an accelerated deployment.The US also hailed Mexico’s agreement to embrace the expansion of a program implemented earlier this year under which some asylum-seekers are returned to Mexico as they wait out their cases. But US officials had already been working to expand the program, which has led to the return of about 10,000 people to Mexico, without Mexico’s public embrace.“The president has completely overblown what he reports to have achieved. These are agreements that Mexico had already made, in some cases months ago,” said Democratic presidential candidate Beto O’Rourke, speaking on ABC’s “This Week”. “They might have accelerated the time table, but by and large the president achieved nothing except to jeopardise the most important trading relationship that the United States of America has.”Another 2020 candidate, Sen. Bernie Sanders of Vermont, chastised Trump for using tariffs as a threat and operating a “trade policy based on tweets”. Post Comment(s) Best Of Express Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 Taking stock of monsoon rain LiveKarnataka floor test: Will Kumaraswamy’s 14-month-old govt survive? Related News Advertising More Explained Advertising P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies She said the US wants to see the number of migrants crossing the border return to levels seen in 2018. Unbowed, Trump intensifies attacks on four Democratic congresswomen last_img read more

Mosquitoes may be contaminating ecosystems with tiny bits of plastic

first_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Erica TennenhouseSep. 18, 2018 , 7:01 PM Mosquitoes may be contaminating ecosystems with tiny bits of plastic The findings, reported today in Biology Letters, indicate that after adult mosquitoes abandon the water (as shown in the image above), they can introduce the bits of plastic they ate as larvae into their new habitats. That means when nonaquatic predators—including birds, bats, and dragonflies—snack on mosquitoes, they may be in for an unhealthy dose of microplastics from the polluted waters in which their prey were born. Scientists already know microplastics can be toxic to many underwater animals. This newly discovered transport route may pose a threat to insect-eating species on land as well. Email Paul Starosta/Getty Images Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Mosquito larvae are remarkably unfussy eaters. They glide through the ponds and puddles they live in, creating currents that draw tiny particles of food into their mouths—but miniscule plastic morsels can easily slip down the hatch as well. New research shows these “microplastics” stick around in the mosquitoes’ bellies even after they emerge from the water as flying adults, putting their land predators in danger of ingesting the contaminants.To conduct the study, researchers poured small fluorescent yellow and green plastic beads about the size of red blood cells into water-filled beakers containing hungry mosquito larvae. Several days later, they fished the larvae out.When the larvae grew up, the team spotted glowing beads inside their Malpighian tubules—structures equivalent to kidneys—confirming that microplastics can linger in an insect’s body even as it shifts from its larval to adult life stage. The researchers also found that the smaller the beads were, the more likely they were to wind up in the mosquitoes. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrylast_img read more

Babri Masjid case SC seeks govt response in extending Special Judges tenure

first_imgBy Express News Service |New Delhi | Published: July 16, 2019 1:54:59 am Lucknow: Litigant in Babri Masjid case expresses concern on safety of his community A bench headed by Justice R F Nariman told senior advocate Aishwarya Bhati appearing for the state to apprise it about the rules and regulations to be followed while granting extension to a retiring trial court judge.The court added that if necessary it will pass orders under Article 142, to ensure that he remains in service for the full period. Article 142 deals with the inherent powers of the top court.In a letter to the Supreme Court, Special Judge Sirendra Kumar Yadav said that though he was hearing the case on a day to day basis for the last two years, he will need atleast six more months to complete it. Advertising Supreme Court to hear Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid title dispute case on January 4 A slim chance Related News Ayodhya case, Ayodhya SC hearing, Ayodhya SC verdict, Ram janmabhoomi case, Babri Masjid, Ayodhya  dispute In a letter to the Supreme Court, Special Judge Sirendra Kumar Yadav said that though he was hearing the case on a day to day basis for the last two years, he will need atleast six more months to complete it.The Supreme Court asked the Uttar Pradesh government on Monday to suggest how the Special CBI Judge hearing the Babri Masjid demolition case in Lucknow, due for retirement in September this year, can be retained in service till the trial ends. Advertising Yadav also told the court that he was set to retire on September 30.On May 30, 2017, the top court had framed charges against 12 people, including BJP stalwarts L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi and Uma Bharti, in the Babri Masjid demolition case. Their applications for discharge from the offence were rejected and they were granted bail on a personal bond of Rs 50,000 each. The court also rejected the CBI opposition to their bail applications.On April 19 in the same year, the apex court ordered the restoration of the conspiracy charge against the three BJP leaders, directing the special court to “complete the trial and deliver the judgment within a period of two years”. It also shifted the trial from Rae Bareli to Lucknow. Post Comment(s)last_img read more